Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Story Of Beowulf - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 999 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/05/08 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Beowulf Essay Did you like this example? The story of Beowulf is old and prehistoric, telling about three battles between Beowulf and several bad mythical creatures. These creatures were ruthless killers who killed just for the thrill of killing. Beowulf was a courageous and brave hero warrior who came in and saved Herot from Grendel, Grendels mother, and the dragon. Beowulf represents the original super hero from back in Anglo-Saxon England. He is the hero that created a gap between good and evil. In the poem Beowulf, the first battle Beowulf encounters is with Grendel. He is an epic hero because he is brave and fearless. He is willing to do what the other men are afraid of because he knows if he does not step up and fight the evil, then no one else is going to stand up and do it. He goes into the first fight with a lot of confidence. Beowulf takes down Grendel with ease, but he does not realize what nightmare he has walked into. Like most early peoples, the Anglo-Saxons liked their heroes larger than life. Beowulf surely filled the bill. Not only was he extraordinarily courageous and loyal, but he possessed physical strength far beyond that of other men (Damon, 1). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Story Of Beowulf" essay for you Create order The second battle he has to deal with is focused on Grendels mother. Beowulf thinks that since Grendel was easy to take out that she will be even easier, but she is already very upset about the loss of her son. Beowulf encounters a new problem about supernatural forms when he breaks his sword on Grendels mothers scales. This confused him because now he has to deal with a type of form that he is not familiar with. This set back pushes Beowulf to use all the strength he is capable of. He weakens her, and this gives him the advantage he was looking for in this battle. Only Beowulf dared to dive into the murky water. Down he swam, a full days journey through swarms of sea creatures (Geiger 1). The third and final battle is between Beowulf and the dragon. The dragons supernatural form is way stronger than Beowulf. Because Beowulf has gained age and a slower reaction time this would be the most challenging battle for him. Beowulf goes into this battle with the belief that fate is on his side. Little did he know, this would be the battle that ended him. The dragon fatally wounds him. His men, with the exception of one, run in fear instead of coming to Beowulfs aid and killing the dragon. Wiglaf, the only warrior that stays behind, comes to Beowulfs rescue to fight the dragon. Beowulf shows his bravery in this last fight because before he died he gave his everything to hold the dragon off and prevent the dragon from killing him, his men, and the rest of the people. Beowulfs assumption of an idealized feminine role by becoming a peacemaker between the Geats and the Danes; Role of women in the life of Beowulf (Morey 1). Though it is a make believe story, many historians have been interested in Beowulf for over two hundred years. It is unknown as to who wrote it, where it was written, or when it was written. Beowulf is an epic poem of 3,182 lines which was written in Old English. This poem was written down by the monks somewhere between the tenth and twelth It is thought to be one of the oldest poems to survive the Anglo Saxon time period. Many historians believe that it is the most important works of Old English Literature. Beowulf is set in Scandinavia. Beowulf who is a warrior of the Geats, travels to help Hrothgar, who is king of the Danes, in Herot with his army and aids in the slaying of three beasts. Hrothgars mead hall has been invaded by Grendel, the mythological beast. Beowulf defeats the beats and, his mother comes to Herot seeking revenge for her sons death. The final defeat of Beowulf is in his battle against the dragon who wounds him fatally, and he reaches his death. Once Beowulf is dead, his warriors took him to Geatland to be buried. Society was divided into three classes. At the highest were the thanes, the Saxon social class. They enjoyed looking and banqueting and that they were expected to offer their followers gifts like weapons. Below them were the churls. Some churls were reasonably well off. Others were very poor. However at least they were free. Below them were a category of slaves referred to as thralls. Their lives were very hard. Some churls owned their own land however several rented land from a thane. They paid rent by functioning on the thanes land for a part of the week and by giving him part of their crops. The Anglo Saxons conjointly gave America the most English place names. Anglo Saxon name endings include: ham, a village or estate, tun, which is a farm or estate, hurst, a wooded hill and bury, which is derived from the Anglo Saxon word burh, meaning fortress or fortified settlement. The Anglo Saxons called groups of Roman buildings a caester. In time that world evolved into the place name ending chester, caster or cester. Almost all of them lived in little villages several had but a hundred inhabitants. Each village was mainly self sufficient. The folks required solely a couple of things from outside like salt and iron. They grew their own food and created their own garments. Beowulf is an Anglo Saxon piece of literature about a Pagan warrior who is trying to kill the monster Grendel and also ends up fighting with Grendels mother and then with a dragon to try to save his life he has to have help with the dragon. This poem is probably one of the most unique poems that exist in the world. The Anglo Saxon culture and history is very interesting and mind boggling to think about everything they had to go through in their everyday lives.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Respiratory System - 1551 Words

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funnelled down into our lungs. There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air. When something goes wrong with part of the respiratory†¦show more content†¦The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles When you breathe in (inspiration), your muscles need to work to fill your lungs with air. The diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the ribcage, does much of this work . At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into your chest. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and flattens out, expanding the space in your chest and drawing air into your lungs. Other muscles, including the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) also help by moving your ribcage in and out. Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require your muscles to work. This is because your lungs are very elastic, and when your muscles relax at the end of inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into their resting position, pushing the air out as they go. PHYSIOLOGY The diseases and disorders of the respiratory system can affect any part of the respiratory tract and range from trivial to life-threatening. The nasal passages and pharynx, for example, are targets for the viruses that cause colds. These viruses infiltrate and destroy the cells of the nasal passage membranes. The immune system fights back by increasing blood flow to the area, bringing numerous virus-attacking white blood cells to the scene; this causes the membranes to swell, resulting in the stuffy nose associated with colds. Mucous secretions increase inShow MoreRelatedRespiratory Systems And The Respiratory System855 Words   |  4 Pagesmouth and nose? Now, I know it is because of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is built up of the organs in our body that serve us to breathe. It offers the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the physical structure. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This e xchange of gases is the respiratory system s means of bringing oxygen to the blood (WebMD. Web). The respiratory system is included nasal cavity, mouth, trachea, bronchiRead MoreRespiratory System2621 Words   |  11 PagesAamp;P II Instructor: David Armoogam September 10, 2010 The respiratory system helps with breathing, inhaling and exhaling. The respiratory systems main function is to give oxygen to the body’s cells and get rid of the carbon dioxide the cells produce. Breathing would be impossible without the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, voice box, windpipe, and lungs. In this essay I plan on explaining how the respiratory system functions as well as its parts. The exchange of two gases calledRead MoreThe Respiratory System Of The Upper Respiratory Tract Essay1797 Words   |  8 Pages The respiratory system is divided into two main parts, the upper respiratory and lower respiratory tract. 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An average human breathes fifty million times in their lifetime! The structure affects the function of this intricate and wonderful system that keep us alive. It all starts from the nose. The basic parts of the respiratory system are the lungs, nose, trachea, diaphragm and alveoli. When we inhale, the diaphragm, whichRead More The Respiratory System Essay1538 Words   |  7 PagesThe respiratory system is a complex organ structure of the human body anatomy, and the primary purpose of this system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood vessels to carry the precious gaseous element to all parts of the body to accomplish cell respiration. The respiratory system completes this important function of breathing throughout inspiration. In the breathing process inhaling oxygen is essential for cells to metabolize nutrients and carry out some other tasks, but it mustRead MoreThe Respiratory System Essay584 Words   |  3 PagesThe respiratory system is the process responsible for the transportation and exchange of gases into and out of the human body. As we breath in, oxygen in the air containing oxygen is drawn into the lungs through a series of air pipes known as the airway and into the lungs. As air is drawn into the lungs and waste gas excreted, it passes through the airway, first through the mouth or nose and through the pharynx, larynx and windpipe – also known as the trachea. At this point it then enters the lungsRead MoreRespiratory System Essay462 Words   |  2 PagesRespiratory System The respiratory system consists of a series of tubes that air passes on its journey from the nostrils. The nostrils open into the nasal cavities, which are lined with moist eiliateol epithelium. Whether one breathes through the nose or the mouth, a breath of air enters the body and flows through the nasal cavity to the pharynx (throat). The back of the nasal cavities is continuous with the throat region, or pharying. Air flows through the larynx (voice box) and into theRead MoreThe Function Of The Respiratory System1044 Words   |  5 Pagesof oxygen and just got inhaled into the body of a young boy I am the author of this paper and I’m going to show the functions of the Respiratory System, and how oxygen becomes energy. I have found a lot of information on the internet, and Body Structures and Functions in the 11th Edition. My goal is to explain the functions of the Respiratory System in narrative format, so as to give the readers imagination and enjoyment from what I think is a molecule’s perspective. To achieve this

Essay About Romeo And Juliet Tragedy Example For Students

Essay About Romeo And Juliet Tragedy In this traumatic but romantic Love story. Shakespeare effectively arouses and sustains the audiences interest with a wide variety of techniques such as; use of language, stagecraft and many more devices. In the key scenes Act 1 Scene 5 and Act 3 Scene 5. Even though at the beginning of Act 1 Scene 5 we are told in the prologue of the plot of Romeo and Juliet. For example, a pair of star-crossed lovers takes their life. So we are aware that Romeo and Juliet are too meet and that it is meant to be also that they are to take their lives. However the audience are still interested in how this happens! Also with the techniques that Shakespeare uses these help to sustain our interest. At the start of Act 1 Scene 5 there is a busy and worrying atmosphere but also an exciting aroma about this scene, this feeling travels to the audience. We get the feeling that the party is going to be big and extravagant. There is also a feeling of apprehension encase the party is not ready in time! This atmosphere arouses the audiences interest. To prolong this suspense Shakespeare enters humour into this scene. At the beginning of the party Lord Capulet grabs the audiences attention with a joke. This lightens the atmosphere. The audience are now being entertained by Lord Capulet Welcome, Gentlemen! Ladies that have their toes! The audiences attention is now further enhanced by Lord Capulet due to his cheerful tone and joking. Shakespeare uses various ways to sustain our interest, such as the characters for example Romeo. Romeo has a very interesting personality. This keeps the audience entertained throughout the play. As he sometimes behaves in a fickle, shallow and small-minded manor. These factors of Romeos personality entertain, but then he can suddenly change into a romantic and lovable character which intrigues us. An example of this is when in Act 1 Scene 5, his interest quickly change from Rosaline to Juliet. Shakespeare once again creates even more interest when Romeos eyes fall on Juliet. The setting for this scene is full of romance. The stagecraft Romeo gazing across the hall staring at Juliet. The audience are romanticised by Romeos words about Juliet a torch that burns bright meaning she lights up the room. He also makes use of a simile as rich a jewel in an Ethiops ear suggesting that she stands out and makes an impact. The audience get the impression that Juliet is very beautiful and elegant. Romeo would be saying these words with love, lust and passion. Because he is so passionate about Juliet. He is paralysed by her beauty! Shakespeare has now gained our interest as we wonder what is going to happen at the rest of the party. Furthermore the setting plays a major part in keeping the audience interested. The setting in Act 1 Scene 5 is in Lord Capulets grand house where the party is held. Shakespeare puts emphasize is as it is where Romeo and Juliet are too first meet. Capulets house emphasizes this perfectly. So the audiences interest is not lost, Shakespeare also uses stagecraft to its full extent. For example when Romeo and Juliet first meet in Act 1 Scene 5, the placing of Romeo and Juliet is just right because it keeps the audience on the edge of their seats. Also their body language and facial expressions are matching and romantic. The language of Tybalt sustains are interest Because Romeo is found out of being a Mountague by, fiery Tybalt. Tybalt reacts in an aggressive manor what shocks the audience bit also arouses their interest even more. He wants to fight Romeo to his Death. Capulet does not agree and Tybalt resentfully backs down. .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .postImageUrl , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:hover , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:visited , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:active { border:0!important; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:active , .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u62cd66d9c88bcd51c6c33af1cc97098e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The dramatic energy EssayWhen Romeo and Juliet finally meet, there is an atmosphere of tension and suspense. Straight away sweet-talks her, My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand! To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. Romeo kisses Juliet; they are interrupted by Juliets mother. Romeo is intrigued to find out who Juliets mother is. Of course we know who Juliets mother is so therefore we know of the ancient feud! Therefore we are now intrigued to find out how Romeo will react! All in all as the audience we would be feeling a mixture of feelings at the end of Act 1 Scene 5. Such as, Happiness, cheerfulness and a feeling of romance. Shakespeare successfully arouses and sustains interest in Act 1 Scene 5 due to some of the key points in this scene. Shakespeare has achieved all this due to his achievement in keeping us interested. Equally importantly in Act 3 Scene 5, Shakespeare willingly arouses and sustains interest in many ways which are to be expressed further on. Therefore Romeo and Juliets first night together is romantic and passionate, so Shakespeare has successfully caught the audiences attention. To sustain this interest there is a sudden change of atmosphere. Initially the atmosphere help to bring together this part of the scene as Romeo and Juliet have just spent their first night together, where the atmosphere is full of passion and lust. Also created is a longing for one another. This intrigues the audience as to what is going to happen. We are not disappointed. The Nurses shock arrival surprises but keeps the audience interested. Your lady mother is coming to your chamber, the audience are anxious for Juliet encase her and Romeo are caught by her mother. There is a sense of relief when Romeo manages to leave un-noticed, after he and Juliet speak rushed about Romeo having to leave and Juliets worry that he might never return. But the audiences relief is short-lived as it changes to sympathy for Juliet marry, my child early next Thursday morn, this indicates tension throughout the audience. As we know that Juliet is already married to the villain Romeo creating dramatic irony. The entrance of Lord Capulet continues to sustain our interest because of Juliets refusing to marry Count Paris. When Lord Capulet finds out we see a frightening change in Lord Capulets personality. Shakespeare cleverly interests the audience with Lord Capulets change of character he turns into someone who scares the audience but creates sympathy for Juliet due to his violent behaviour. At this moment the audience would be feeling terrified for Juliets well-being. Shakespeare effectively gains sympathy for Juliet. Lord Capulets tone of voice and his words, I will drag thee on a hurdle thither. Shakespeare sustains this by Lord Capulets actions his violence and also Juliets pleading. Good Father I beseech you on my knees. Shakespeare has now achieved making the audience feel different emotions. Also with the use of stagecraft this puts impact on how frightened Juliet is, as Lord Capulet stands over Juliet with her kneeling almost cowering away from her father. Shakespeare makes the atmosphere even worse with Juliets pleading to her Mother. Talk not to me, for Ill not speak a word. This indicates even more sympathy on Juliets behalf the denial by her mother. Thankfully the nurse intervenes and trys to calm the situation. God in heaven, bless her the audience now have a sense of relief, as Lord Capulet seems to calm down. Shakespeare ends this scene with a soliloquy at the end of the scene said by Juliet. The audiences interest is enhanced by this because we are left wondering what might happen even though we do know that Juliet dies we are still intrigued to find out the circumstances before this, Ill to the friar to know his remedy. If all else fail, myself have power to die. The audience would now be feeling worried and afraid for Juliet. Due to the fact that if the friar cannot help her she will have to commit suicide, this also makes the audience also realise how against Juliet is about marrying Paris because she loves Romeo so much. The audience would now feel sympathy for Julie because of her being forced into something she does not want to do. .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .postImageUrl , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:hover , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:visited , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:active { border:0!important; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:active , .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19 .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc9d1eae3ff0b3dd77c003e3c80e67c19:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The crucible, Arthur Miller EssayHence Shakespeares success in arousing and sustaining interest in Act 3 Scene 5. As a result the audience would be feeling a wide variety of emotions. Such as; anxiousness, sympathy and of being intrigued. Shakespeare maintains the suspension throughout the whole play but in particularly in the two key scenes mentioned. He uses many different devices to create this affect and unlike many other writers he can keep the suspense going through a number of scenes. This is due to his different techniques, which create and sustain the interest of the audience without this we would become very bored and restless throughout the play. These techniques that Shakespeare has used to engage our interest all help in the beautiful but tragic play of Romeo and Juliet.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Charismatic Authority Essays

Charismatic Authority Essays Charismatic Authority Paper Charismatic Authority Paper In his piece â€Å"Working Towards the Fuhrer†, Ian Kershaw details Adolf Hitler’s regime as being one of â€Å"charismatic authority†. Sociologist Max Weber defined this concept as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him†. Over the course of his interpretation, Kershaw locks in on the concept that, unlike Stalin’s Russia, Nazi Germany could not exist without Hitler. To establish his point, Kershaw had to balance between some long held theories regarding the ruling style of Hitler.As noted in class, history has taken to describing Hitler as being uninterested in the daily affairs (particularly related to domestic ones) of Germany, at times being described as a lazy dictator and by Hans Mommsen as a â€Å"weak dictator†. While Kershaw’s piece does establish that he agrees with the depiction of Hitler being i ndifferent about daily affairs, it is clear that he does not support the notion that Hitler’s rule was weak in any way. To delineate the concept that Hitler was not interested in the daily affairs that typical authoritarian rulers might have, Kershaw uses several examples.Kershaw states â€Å"after 1933, as head of government he scarcely put pen to paper himself other than to sign legislation put in front of him by Lammers† (head of the Reich Chancellery). Another excerpt summarizes a day in the life of Hitler, essentially stating that he did not appear before lunch, only to review a few articles, then after lunch he would move on to recreational activities (films, walks) prior to and after dinner. Also included in this excerpt is Hitler’s disdain for paper work and more importantly, bureaucracy. Based on the above, one might wonder how any argument can be made to show Adolf Hitler to be a strong leader.The answer, according to Kershaw resides in the concept of â€Å"Working Towards the Fuhrer†. Beginning with the following quote from one of Hitler’s former adjutants, Kershaw begins to establish his point: â€Å"He took the view that many things sorted themselves out on their own if one did not interfere†. This philosophy runs parallel to many of Hitler’s other ideologies, all in some way rooted to Darwinism. In this case, Kershaw points out that Hitler’s non-interventionalist style as a dictator led him to wait for the best decision to come to the forefront from those who worked for him.Kershaw states that due to â€Å"his instinctive Darwinism†, Hitler was unable to choose a side in a dispute until a winner emerged. By using this concept, along with a comparison between Germany and Russia, Kershaw begins to establish his belief in Hitler’s tenure as one of â€Å"Charismatic Authority†. Kershaw is extremely effective in proving that Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Russia were more d ifferent than alike. To do so, he cites the â€Å"system† that was in place with Stalin. This system can be briefly described as having traditional bureaucratic qualities, clearly defined and logical goals, and the potential for a successor to be named after Stalin.In stark contrast to this, Germany under Hitler lacked any traditional bureaucratic qualities, an inability to settle into a conservative authoritarian state, or cease its need to dominate (among a string of goals that lacked boundaries). All of the above begin to shape Kershaw’s argument that Nazi Germany was incapable of reproducing itself without Hitler at the helm. It can be argued that Germans were more tied to Hitler than Germany itself. The country began to pursue the realization of ideological aims that were located within the person of Hitler.The fact that Nazi Germany lacked any structural order only served to advance the personal goals of Hitler. Essentially Hitler’s desire for radicalizati on became policy once those below him were given autonomy to carry out his will. As discussed in class, essentially everyone in Hitler’s regime reported directly up to him. Hitler encapsulated this by saying â€Å"For us the Idea is the Fuhrer, and each Party member has only to obey the Fuhrer†. As a byproduct of this, these individuals were given a certain level of autonomy in satisfying the Fuhrer’s demands.Hitler’s refusal to give edicts led to the concept of â€Å"Working Towards the Fuhrer† as a means to keep Germany in lockstep with the wishes of its leader. Werner Willikens, State Secretary in Prussian Agricultural Ministry, established this concept, stating that one should not wait for orders to come down from leadership. Instead, it is the duty of the individual to attempt to work towards the Fuhrer with Hitler’s spirit in mind. This level of autonomy is the impetus behind the extreme acts committed by Nazi Germany.Set out with a go al of national redemption achieved by racial purification and expansionism, those who worked to carry out Hitler’s will were given the power to do so by any means necessary. Just as Hitler’s goals were limitless, so too were the powers allowed to those attempting to achieve them. By 1938, Hitler became a force that could not be stopped due to his role as â€Å"Charismatic Authoritarian†. Essentially Germany became â€Å"the mission† and Hitler was the embodiment of â€Å"the mission†, as this concept â€Å"did not exist as a doctrine independent of the leader†.With those who supported him left to their own means to please him, one could argue that there were some elements of a polycratic agencies being employed to achieve Hitler’s goals. This led to further radicalization of Nazi policies, as all who worked toward the Fuhrer were left to interpret what means should be used to carry out their duties. Within the framework of the stateme nt above, Hitler took on the role of indirect leader of the radicalization. Being the only common link between its various parts, Hitler was the lynch pin of the entire system and was almost deified for it.Hitler took on a three-pronged role in this process: 1. Unifier: the common bond amongst all who sought to do his bidding 2. Activator: His â€Å"utopian† vision served as the catalyst that all underneath sought to achieve 3. Enabler: Hitler gave such vast autonomy to those working for him provided a rubber stamp and sanctioned any action taken that would be aligned with the ultimate goal, regardless of how inhumane or barbaric * As time progressed, Hitler became more of a symbol for the radicalization of policy, with those who â€Å"worked towards him† becoming the driving force.This concept is one of the vital conclusions that Kershaw makes to justify his point that, although not involved in day-to-day activity, Hitler should never be classified as a weak dictator. His charisma became the driving force for a legion of followers to do his bidding, even without the aid of direct orders other than to satisfy the mission. In addition to this, one could even argue that Hitler’s unwillingness to engage in daily affairs only enhanced his position by providing the autonomy he did to those who worked towards him.This created a feudal quality among those who competed for his attention, a Darwinist battle for who could achieve his goals more efficiently. * Based upon all of the above, it is difficult to disagree with Kershaw’s argument. His use of countless sources and documents to support his theory on every level make for a compelling argument, particularly related to the idea that Nazi Germany could never replicate itself without Hitler driving it. This to me is the essence of â€Å"Charismatic Authority†, the point that as the charisma dissipates, so too would the regime. * * * * * * *

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Biography of Murasaki Shikibu

Biography of Murasaki Shikibu Murasaki Shikibu  (c.  976-978 - c. 1026-1031) is known for  writing what is considered the worlds first novel, The Tale of Genji. Shikibu was a  novelist and a court attendant of Empress Akiko of Japan. Also known as Lady Murasaki, her real name is not known. Murasaki means violet and may have been taken from a character in  The Tale of Genji.   Early Life Murasaki Shikibu was born a member of the cultured Fujiwara family of Japan. A paternal great-grandfather had been a poet, as was her father, Fujiwara Tamatoki. She was educated alongside her brother, including learning Chinese and writing. Personal Life Murasaki Shikibu was married to another member of the extensive Fujiwara family, Fujiwara Nobutaka, and they had a daughter in 999. Her husband died in 1001. She lived quietly until 1004, when her father became governor of the province of Echizen.   The Tale of Genji Murasaki Shikibu was brought to the Japanese imperial court, where she attended the Empress Akiko, Emperor Ichijos consort. For two years, from about 1008, Murasaki recorded in a diary what happened at court and what she thought about what happened. She used some of what shed recorded in this diary to write a fictional account of a prince named Genji - and therefore the first known novel. The book, which covers four generations through Genjis grandson, was probably meant to be read aloud to her main audience, women. Later Years After the emperor Ichijo died in 1011, Murasaki retired, perhaps to a convent. Legacy The book  The Tale of Genji  was translated into English by Arthur Waley in 1926.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

The Descriptive Aspects of the Novel Silas Marner Essay - 7

The Descriptive Aspects of the Novel Silas Marner - Essay Example During the twentieth century, individuals considered their community very important. The local village or town provided emotional and material support to the community members. The community gives members a sense of identity, through community discussions and gatherings (Eliot, 1861). The third point shows appropriate character destiny in the story. The plot is viewed as mechanistic on several occasions because the major characters are given just rewards or punishments in the story. Godfrey, for example, succeeds in marrying Nancy but they remain childless. Also, Silas becomes the most popular person in the community and lives in total happiness after adopting Eppie. The moral order in the community is clearly stated in the novel plot. Despite living alone for a long time, Silas has a good heart. This is illustrated by his kind gestures towards adopting Eppie after her mother’s death. This moral behavior is adequately rewarded because the relationship between Silas and Eppie is good and they remain a happy family. The concept of faith and community are related as shown in the novel. The community initially rejects and isolates Silas; however, he is later on embraced by the same community due o his acceptable conduct in the society. When Silas reduced his fa ith in the community, he was isolated from key social organizations like the church (Eliot, 1861). The novel utilizes the natural world to develop metaphors and images. The isolation of Silas is compared to that of a spider which is a very solitary insect. Silas becomes confused after he is robbed. He is, therefore, compared to an ant that becomes confused when its pathway is blocked. The domestic space of Silas is intruded or disrupted in the novel. The isolation of Silas is ensured through the closure of his cottage, from other community members. Silas cottage becomes bright when he and Eppie become a happy family. Social class aspects feature  greatly in the story. The English society during the 19th century was socially stratified.